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Open Access Research

Parallel improvement of left ventricular geometry and filling pressure after transcatheter aortic valve implantation in high risk aortic stenosis: comparison with major prosthetic surgery by standard echo Doppler evaluation

Marco Fabio Costantino1, Maurizio Galderisi2*, Ernesta Dores2, Pasquale Innelli4, Giandomenico Tarsia1, Maurilio Di Natale23, Ciro Santoro2, Francesco De Stefano2, Roberta Esposito2 and Giovanni de Simone2

Author Affiliations

1 Division of Cardiology, San Carlo Hospital, Potenza

2 Division of Cardioangiology with CCU, Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Federico II University Hospital, Naples, Italy

3 Naples Division of Cardiology, Federico II University Hospital, Naples, Italy

4 Villa d’Agri Hospital, Villa d’Agri, Potenza, Italy

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Cardiovascular Ultrasound 2013, 11:18  doi:10.1186/1476-7120-11-18

Published: 3 June 2013

Abstract

Purpose

The effect of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) on left ventricular (LV) geometry and function was compared to traditional aortic replacement (AVR) by major surgery.

Methods

45 patients with aortic stenosis (AS) undergoing TAVI and 33 AVR were assessed by standard echo Doppler the day before and 2 months after the implantation. 2D echocardiograms were performed to measure left ventricular (LV) mass index (LVMi), relative wall thickness (RWT), ejection fraction (EF) and the ratio between transmitral E velocity and early diastolic velocity of mitral annulus (E/e’ ratio). Valvular-arterial impedance (Zva) was also calculated.

Results

At baseline, the 2 groups were comparable for blood pressure, heart rate, body mass index mean transvalvular gradient and aortic valve area. TAVI patients were older (p<0.0001) and had greater LVMi (p<0.005) than AVR group. After 2 months, both the procedures induced a significant reduction of transvalvular gradient and Zva but the decrease of LVMi and RWT was significant greater after TAVI (both p<0.0001). E/e’ ratio and EF were significantly improved after both the procedure but E/e’ reduction was greater after TAVI (p<0.0001). TAVI exhibited greater percent reduction in mean transvalvular gradient (p<0.05), Zva (p<0.02), LVMi (p<0.0001), RWT (p<0.0001) and E/e’ ratio (p<0.0001) than AVR patients. Reduction of E/e’ ratio was positively related with reduction of RWT (r = 0.46, p<0.002) only in TAVI group, even after adjusting for age and percent reduction of Zva (r =0.43, p<0.005).

Conclusions

TAVI induces a greater improvement of estimated LV filling pressure in comparison with major prosthetic surgery, due to more pronounced recovery of LV geometry, independent on age and changes of hemodynamic load.

Keywords:
Transcatheter aAortic valve implantation; Doppler echocardiography; Relative wall thickness; Left ventricular mass