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Percutaneous treatment of patients with heart diseases: selection, guidance and follow-up. A review

Carla Contaldi, Maria-Angela Losi*, Antonio Rapacciuolo, Maria Prastaro, Raffaella Lombardi, Valentina Parisi, Lucia S Parrella, Carlo Di Nardo, Alessandra Giamundo, Roberto Puglia, Giovanni Esposito, Federico Piscione and Sandro Betocchi

Author Affiliations

Department of Clinical Medicine, Cardiovascular and Immunological Sciences, University Federico II, Naples, Italy

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Cardiovascular Ultrasound 2012, 10:16  doi:10.1186/1476-7120-10-16

Published: 27 March 2012


Aortic stenosis and mitral regurgitation, patent foramen ovale, interatrial septal defect, atrial fibrillation and perivalvular leak, are now amenable to percutaneous treatment. These percutaneous procedures require the use of Transthoracic (TTE), Transesophageal (TEE) and/or Intracardiac echocardiography (ICE). This paper provides an overview of the different percutaneous interventions, trying to provide a systematic and comprehensive approach for selection, guidance and follow-up of patients undergoing these procedures, illustrating the key role of 2D echocardiography.